My technical vocabulary
A scientific approach to style slalom (1996) by Enrico Perano:
STEP: set of evolutions performed with the skates in running a row of cones according to a predefined direction, respecting the (fundamental) condition of crossing each pair of consecutive cones at least once with one or both skates.
ELEMENTAL STEP: step that cannot be broken down further into simpler steps.
FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENTAL STEP: one of the universally recognized elemental steps.
ES1: simple steps forward or backward, simple or crossed eagle , single leg forward or backward, and so on are basic elemental steps.
COMPOUND STEP: step consisting of two or more elemental steps connected to each other.
ES2: the double back and forth crossings, the Mabrouk step, and all the miscellaneous elemental steps that can come to mind are compound steps.
PERIODIC STEP: compound step, whose course is repeated identically every n glasses (with n greater than or equal to 2). The minimum n for which this condition occurs is called the step period.
ES3: the step of Mabrouk is periodic with period 4.
ES4: each non-periodic compound step performed on n cones can become periodic with period n (if every n cones are repeated identically).
SWITCH (change): transition between two different steps.
NOTE 1: the change between two steps can take place in several ways so you can have more switches between two same steps. In particular, the switch used to pass from one step A to another step B is generally different from the one used to return from B to A.
OPPOSITE STEP (or SWITCHSTANCE): given two steps A and B, let’s say that B is the opposite of A if it is obtained by executing A from the other side, that is, in the unusual direction.
Examples of steps and their opposites:
Ala’s steps to the right and to the left
the steps of Mabrouk made in the two versions (rotation in antieagle to the right and left)
Tap on the right leg only to the left and on the left leg only to the right
Forward on the right leg only and on the left leg only
Side walk performed from left and right
SYMMETRIC STEP: a step is symmetrical when it coincides with its opposite, that is, when by executing the opposite, the same step is obtained again.
For example, symmetrical steps are double back and forth crossings, forward walking, backward walking, and so on.
REVERSE STEP: given two steps A and B, we say that B is the inverse of A if it is obtained by inverting the movements of the skates made in performing A.
Examples of steps and their inverses:
the back and forth walks are the inverse of the other
internal and external tap-tap on the same leg (for example on the right leg only to the left and always on the right leg only to the right)
forward with the left or right leg only and backward with the same leg
the bacK and forth crosses
NOTE 2: If you record the execution of a step with the camcorder, by scrolling the tape back you will see its inverse.
NOTE 3: In some cases the inverse of a step coincides with its opposite. This is the case, for example, of the side walk or the Ala pass.
ANTIMETRIC STEP: when it coincides with its inverse, that is, when reversing the movement of the skates you get the same step back.
In reality, an elemental step is never antimetric as it cannot coincide with its inverse, but can be equal to the inverse of its opposite. By accepting this extension in the definition, the Mabrouk passage, for example, is antimetric because by scrolling back the shots of one of its performances, the opposite of the same passage is seen.
An elemental step can’t be actually antimetric because it can’t be equal to its inverse. However it can be equal to the inverse of its opposite. So we will consider antimetric the steps which meet this condition. Consequently, for example the Mabouk step is antimetric because if you film its performance and push the bottom backward you see its opposite.
DISCONTINUITIES: An elemental step can’t be actually antimetric because it can’t be equal to its inverse. However it can be equal to the inverse of its opposite. So we will consider antimetric the steps which meet this condition. Consequently, for example the Mabouk step is antimetric because if you film its performance and push the bottom backward you see its opposite.
DISCONTINUITY: there is a discontinuity between two cones when one or, sequentially, both skates is raised abruptly in crossing them. Based on the number of discontinuities, a step can be:
- CONTINUOUS: when there is no discontinuity in crossing all pairs of cones.
- CONTINUOUS IN SECTIONS: when the discontinuities it contains are isolated, that is, they are not present when crossing a consecutive sequence of multiple pairs of cones, but at most in the switches between elemental component steps.
- DISCONTINUOUS: when all the crossings of the pairs of cones in the row occur with discontinuity.
- MIXED: if you cross some sequences of consecutive pairs of cones in a discontinuous way.
typical discontinuous steps are simple and crossed lateral tap-taps, or performed with one leg.
The step “right leg (resp. left) back alternating with tap-only on right leg (resp. left)” it is an example of a mixed step.
The simple, double crossings, the steps of Alà, Mabrouk,… are examples of continuous steps. The walks are also intended to be continuous.